Monochloroacetic acid, CH2ClCOOH - acetic acid, in which one hydrogen atom of the methyl group is replaced by a chlorine atom, colorless crystals.
Monochloroacetic acid is an intermediate product in the synthesis of indigo and many other vat dyes; It is also used in the preparation of carboxymethylcellulose, barbital hypnotic, herbicides (for example, salts and esters of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), vitamin B6.
An illustration of its usefulness in organic chemistry is the O-alkylation of salicylic aldehyde with chloroacetic acid followed by decarboxylation of the resulting ester to give benzofuran.
Most reactions use the high reactivity of the C-Cl bond. It is the precursor for the glyphosate herbicide. Herbicide MFCA (2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy acetic acid) was obtained by alkylation with chloroacetic acid. Chloroacetic acid is converted to chloroacetyl chloride, the precursor of adrenaline.